English translation from French: Hélène Millon. (May 2004)
The following document includes three papers:
1. A revolution in astronomy. This part is the easiest to apprehend and it sums up the whole argumentation.
2. Our vision of the universe is drastically changed by the CREIL effect. This second part goes further into details.
3. CREIL effect in astronomy. (only in French) This third part requires more culture. It refers to scientific publications that are the foundations of the three parts of the document.
Galaxies no longer move away from us. The Universe is no longer expanding. The Hubble law still applies to galaxies but it is no longer accounted for by the Doppler effect. This late effect is being replaced by an optical one, called the CREIL effect that has been discovered by the French Professor Jacques Moret-Bailly.
All redshifted and blueshifted spectra emitted by (heavenly) objects can but be interpreted by the CREIL effect or the Doppler effect or a combination of both. All the other effects meant to account for observations (such as the Compton effect, for example) muddle up images or spectra. The CREIL effect is made essential to interpret those highly complex spectra of objects called quasars if one does not want to resort to the magic of « dark matter « or to other queer concepts.
The CREIL effect occurs within space vacuum. Such vacuum is emptier than the best of the vacuums that one knows how to create on earth, but it contains a subtle gas, mainly made up of hydrogen. This very transparent gas is crossed over by the « hot » lights emitted by stars and by thermal radiations at 2.7 kelvins, made popular by the Nobel prizes Penzias and Wilson (« cold » lights). The CREIL effect also occurs within a hotter gas (when it is located near a high temperature object). As in a laser beam, some particles of the gas interact with lights, without shifting the beams, hence without disturbing the images of stars. Such interaction conveys energy from « hot » lights to « cold » ones. The result is a slight global drop of the frequencies of hot lights and a rise for cold lights. One could equally say that the spectra of the lights of stars redshift and that of cold lights blueshift (for thermal radiations, such blueshifts amount to a warming up, an amplification). Such effects, that a specialist of lasers and microwave beams would consider as so ordinary that, in optics, they bear the specific name of « parametric » effects, have been up to now looked over by astrophysicists. The simplest example of parametric effect is refraction. Gaseous substances being rather evenly distributed all throughout the universe (heavenly objects apart), their effects adding themselves up, the redshifts are broadly speaking in proportion with the amount of matter crossed over, thus often with distance. The more the spectrum of an object redshifts, the more distant it is: that is the Hubble law, henceforth accounted for by the CREIL effect, and not by the Doppler effect which brings in the notion of an expansion of the universe. The Doppler effect is to be brought in only as a consequence of the actual and often local movements of objects. It is no longer possible to attribute a particular velocity to an object with certainty on the mere recording of a spectral shift, as it used to be done.(Conversely, velocity implies shifting). The expansion of the Universe becomes a matter of doubt.
The CREIL effect reclassifies quasars as dying stars or, at least, as less distant and smaller objects. The redshifting that used to be ascribed to the Doppler effect rather than to the CREIL effect, within a gaseous halo surrounding them, gave quasars staggering masses, distances and radiances, turning them into monsters. The huge distances attributed to quasars by the Hubble law ruled out that they could be viewed as stars, their radiances being too weak for them to be seen at the furthermost bounds of the universe. Conversely, according to the theory of the evolution of stars, those that have higher masses than that of the Sun and are dying, are brighter, very hot on their outer faces and surrounded by clouds of « dirty » hydrogen which, owing to the CREIL effect neighbouring stars, cause significant redshiftings of the spectra The assessed spectra of such stars, surrounded with layers of hydrogen whose temperatures decrease with distances, precisely concur with the checked spectra of quasars. The Hubble law does not apply to those local, intrinsic effects. Quasars are thus mere ordinary stars, though very bright ones.
The CREIL effect also accounts for the blueshiftings of the radio waves sent by the spatial probes Pioneer, the energy required by those blueshiftings occurring from the redshifting of the solar light in which the paths of the waves are bathed. The existence of this CREIL effect within the solar system, confirmed by experiments whose all parameters have been checked, makes it possible to extend it to the whole of space, thus increasing our doubts as to the expansion of the Universe.
The consequences in astronomy are revolutionary for, without an expanding Universe, .the big-bang theory is challenged and, with it, all the daring constructions related to it.
The interpretation of the state of the Universe is made simpler.
CREIL ? Don’t look up on a map for the town that bears the same name. CREIL is the temporary name of an optical effect discovered by the French Professor Jacques Moret-Bailly. Such effect would remain marginal, had it not huge consequences in astrophysics. The CREIL effect is as momentous as the Doppler effect that used to account for the Hubble law, the one which has laid down the distances proposed for galaxies and quasars and that has thus shaped the form of our universe. The CREIL effect allows us to keep the Hubble law for galaxies but explains it differently. The Hubble law can no longer apply to quasars which, according to that law, were turned into monstrous objects located on the furthermost bounds of the universe Quasars become mere dying stars, losing their billion light-years in distance. That is not all: the universe is no longer expanding and the big-bang theory no longer a must. Such petty optical effect, that has been passed over up to now, radically transforms our conception of the universe.
The following document has been simplified to be more easily accessible, though no concession has been made as regards its scientific value: it rests upon the publications made by Professor Jacques Moret-Bailly who has discovered the CREIL effect through a classification of all optical effects. The space occupied by the CREIL effect was not yet filled. The idea dawned on him to look for the place where this effect, unknown up to now, could disclose itself. The most recent publications on CREIL effect or their copies can be found on the Internet site arvix.orgi (and on http://jean.moretbailly.free.fr) in English and on pdf files, with references to previous studies. Scanning this site in all its fields is made possible by a mere mention of the name of the author. A document in French, written by Jacques Moret-Bailly, follows, entitled CREIL effect in astronomy. It explains the CREIL effect. To be understood, it requires a minimum of culture, though less elaborate than what is required for the other publications. This document has not been translated in the English version.
The theory on which the CREIL effect relies has been published in several journals dealing with optics or spectroscopy. The specialists in optics do not dispute the CREIL effect. For them, it is to be ranged within classical effects, but it is still little known by astronomers, though the latter are the first concerned.
An effect that commands the same optical theory, and which is called «Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering (ISRS)» can be observed at the laboratory. What differs is the nature of the sources of lights that are used: natural lights for the CREIL effect, femtosecond laser impulsions for the ISRS. The theory shows up the consequences of such difference.
The CREIL effect enables to interpret many astronomical observations in a simple way without resorting to such strange concepts as « dark matter », the synthesis of iron in young objects, and in spectroscopy, a variation of the fine structure constant.
This document has been reread by Jacques Moret-Bailly so as to rule out any scientific counter-truth.
The universe, as conventionally described in all textbooks in use at the end of the twentieth century, is made up of vacuum and galaxies filled with stars. Close to us, the Sun is part of our galaxy, the Milky Way, together with stars the nearest of which are several light-years distant. The farther galaxies are, the more rapidly they move away from us in an all-embracing movement of explosion. Accordingly, the Universe is expanding. The Hubble law, based upon the redshiftings of spectra, approximately links the shiftings of the lines of such spectra to distance. The redshiftings of spectra are ascribed to the Doppler effect, concurring with the velocities with which they move away. The explosion originates in the big-bang, located at the beginning of the age of the universe supposedly dated at about 13.7 billion years. Very hot at its birth, the Universe has got colder, reaching for the time being an average temperature of 2.7 K, close to absolute zero, though not nil.
The farthest quasars are objects that can be observed at a distance of several billion light-years. Since light moves at very high velocity, -300 000 km/s - though such velocity remains finite and constant in space vacuum, one has to take off from what one observes the self same number of years as that of the light-years measuring the distance.
One observes the world through electromagnetic waves emitted by the constituents of the world. We speak of light, even for what is not visible, always implying electromagnetic waves. Radio waves benefit from being on our scale and from having transmitting-receiving antennas on our scale. Molecular transmitters and receivers, for waves whose wave-lengths have molecular sizes, cannot be observed directly, as they are too small, but one knows their properties. Such transmitting-receiving properties differ from one molecule to the other.
Light has long been a matter of study. The transmitters of lights are many: nearly all matters radiate and they do so in a number of ways. All hot bodies radiate, even the coldest ones. Likewise, matter can absorb or modify light. Interactions between light and matter are of several types. Those who specialize in optics have managed to classify and understand them. In their research work, they have been helped owing to the discovery of masers and lasers and to the analysis they have been able to make of lights, so called coherent or incoherent. Interactions can be violent, with quantified energy variations of matter or they can be very soft, with cumulative effects.
Any molecule (more generally speaking any matter) can be a transmitter of light, if it has received energy, through some impact, for example, or from another light. It peters out when transmitting a luminous wave train whose length varies, though often of about 5 ns (5 nanoseconds = 5 billion seconds). Such train, made up of about 2 million sinusoidal undulations, moves at light velocity and is about 1,5 m long. It is a coherent sinusoidal wave if one pays no heed to the effects of the tail-ends of the wave. Likewise, molecules have neighbours that also transmit in the same way, without being synchronised with the former. The whole of those many transmissions is incoherent and makes up ordinary natural light.
Inside a laser, molecules, when stirred up by a suitable source of energy, are capable of amplifying the light they receive while keeping their original directions and their coherences. Through a cumulative effect, one can obtain a wave that long remains coherent in time. With coherent waves, it becomes easier to observe cumulative effects and interferences.
Light cuts across transparent matters, such as glass or gases, while accurately transmitting images. Matter is supposedly scarcely intervening. Actually, matter often significantly bears upon light. Thus, a pane shifts images within space and compels light to diffract. Matter filters in the light that cuts it across. Such filtering can lead to modified intensities, frequencies and directions.
The way light behaves when facing matter has been usually described through many terms: absorption, diffraction, amplification, diffusion, dispersal, polarization, deflection, and so on. Interactions between light and matter are so many that one can easily get lost.
Absorption and transmission of light through matter are reverse effects. The effect that takes place is ruled over by energetic asymmetry: a stirred up molecule secretes a surplus of energy it gets rid of by transmitting light, but the molecule that is in a low energetic state can get stirred up when receiving light. Reversibility takes place, a possible transfer of energy, one way or the other, between matter and light and it can happen in almost all types of transfer. Each one of the frequencies of a light beam leagues with luminous energy together with temperature according to Planck’s formula. Interaction between light and matter tends to bring the temperature of matter closer to Planck’s temperatures of light in their various wave lengths.
The thermal emission of a hot body (even if it is not dark, hence ordinary) shows it well. The dark body, alluded to here, is luminous for a physicist: it is an ideal body that absorbs all lights, hence called dark, though it also emits the lights linked to its temperature (thermal emission).
Let us transmit or reflect light by homogeneous matter with the self same temperature: the effect remains neutral. Now, let us lower the temperature of that matter, which, for a dark body, lessens intensity more with short wave lengths than with large ones. The spectrum of light tends towards the temperature of a colder, dark body, and, usually, it becomes redder.
A quantified stirring up of matter or the reverse can be mediated by the previous effects. But « parametric effects », interactions between light and matter, can also happen, thus modifying the energy of matter but slightly and temporarily. The most current parametric effect is a refraction linked with a dynamic, often transient, polarization of matter.
When several bodies collide together, the hottest get colder, the coldest hotter. Likewise, several light lines can change their temperatures while exchanging energy, which lowers the frequencies of hot lines and raises those of cold ones. The CREIL effect can happen when matter owns the necessary properties to prompt a « contact » of lines. Then matter plays a catalytic role via parametric interaction.
Matter has to be a diluted gas with « quadrupolar resonances » whose frequencies range between about 1 and 300 megahertz. As the CREIL effect is a parametric effect within a homogeneous environment, it does not muddle up images. If one neglects the dispersions of the optical effects of gas, the relative variations of the frequencies of very hot beams do not rely on their frequencies, which is also the case with a Doppler effect.
By laying down the angular positions of objects, owing to the usually rectilinear paths of light, a sky map can be set up. Besides knowing the direction, the analysis of the light emitted by each object, mainly the study of the spectrum, gives almost all the information known to this day. Each day, astronomers pile up more and more precise data. In space vacuum, light, when away from matter, is propagated along straight lines. The universe appearing almost empty at first approach, one can observe a star in the direction where it lies. Matter, veered off course by the attraction of massive objects, can absorb, diffuse or diffract light.
Matter is to be found in the universe, even outside stars. Interstellar vacuum is not complete. It contains much matter, and especially hydrogen, the major constituent of the universe. Such vacuum is emptier than the best of vacuums one knows how to achieve on earth. But, since light reaches us through great distances, it crosses over molecules made up of a very subtle gas. Rather homogeneous, such gas hardly muddles up images, but one must admit that the light that reaches us from stars has gone through matter, and sometimes through a lot of matter.
There is also a lot of matter near some objects. In particular, contracting objects turn faster and faster so as to keep constant kinetic momentum, become unstable and end up by ejecting matter in order to become stable again. Quasars probably do so. The light emitted by such objects as well as all the more or less gaseous transmitters surrounding them, cut across more or less hot layers of matter that modify their intensities and their spectra without much disturbing the direction of observation. The spectrum of a very hot body contains lines whose frequencies are characteristic of the composition of transmitting or absorbing matter. Such spectrum is well known, but for far away objects, it is redshifted. Up to the twentieth century, such shift used to be explained by the Doppler effect, hence linked with the receding velocity of such objects.
The point, with quasars, is that the shift is so strong that one must locate quasars almost on the furthermost bounds of the universe, at a distance of billion light-years. To see a heavenly object at such distances, one must attribute it staggering luminescence, whose rough magnitude should equal those of galaxies, a piling up of billions of stars. A heavenly object of this type cannot be classified, and yet, many such objects do exist. So the idea came up to attribute another cause than the Doppler effect to the shiftings of lines, but which one ? Astrophysicists have been racking their brains over a substitute for the Doppler effect. Fanciest explanations have cropped up. All of them have been discarded until Professor Jacques Moret-Bailly has put forward an effect he has called the CREIL effect.
Such effect stems from standard optics, which enables us to account for the many interactions between matter and light and has provided us, as well, with those marvellous instruments that lasers are. The conditions to abide by for the effect to emerge are the following. Long, luminous paths within rarefied gas (close to vacuum) and the presence of a few specific matters prompting the effect (more or less ionized molecules or atoms, more suitable than others to prompt interactions with light: let us call them catalysers). One of such matters is the molecule of hydrogen that has lost one electron: such molecule can be found in cold, interstellar spaces. Such ion is short-lived if it undergoes shocks, but in spurred on vacuum, it lives longer and is being generated by ultraviolet radiations. Other allotropic matters and combinations of isotopes of hydrogen endowed with the same properties exist. The hot hydrogen that can be found near a hot object is also suitable. The light that cuts across such gas redshifts very slightly, owing to the CREIL effect. Astronomical distances must be had to get a distinct effect . But the effect is cumulative: the more gas one cuts across, the greater the shift is. Except for huge shifts where differences can be detected, the CREIL effect has a result that is very close to the Doppler effect and they can be confounded, but there is no question of source velocities or molecule velocities with the CREIL effect. The shift is a mere question of the quantity of crossed matter.
Intergalactic space gas reaches a temperature close to 2.7 K. It emits and absorbs a thermal radiation that is balanced with it. Within a gas, heat transfers take place through radiation and, locally, through convection and conduction. Radiation prevails in such spread, transparent, environments as space. Space gas is very transparent, thus prompting exchanges at great distances, but it considerably slows down the heat exchange velocity on account of radiations. Heat sources, such as stars, send forth radiations that easily cut across gas with little interaction. Thus, most astronomical observations do not take into account the passage of light through gas. Thus, one has a gas at 2.7 K, crossed over by cold light issued by a body at 2.7 K, but with little interaction between both. The CREIL effect prompts the most momentous interaction and it shows up through the frequency shiftings of radiations with short wave lengths, the thermal balance giving the radiation at 2.7 K. Hot or cold lights that simultaneously cut across the gas cross one another and do not deviate. Owing to the CREIL effect, they slightly bring their temperatures and their frequencies closer. Near stars, but always in a diluted gas, it is the lights of stars that are the hottest. Their lights pass on part of the heat they give off to colder lights through CREIL effect, increasing frequencies by the way. They redshift while other lights blueshift. Thus, radio waves, whose temperatures are a little higher than 2.7 K, far from transmitters, increase their frequencies when they are bathed in such a strong light as that of the sun, across long distances.
The CREIL effect (hot) occurs within the layers of hot gas that are to be found about some such very hot objects as quasars, and that owing to the hydrogen ions. Such hot effect is intense enough to prompt strong shifts of the spectrum lines. The redshiftings, linked to objects, are intrinsic. The hot CREIL spectra of such objects little differ from Doppler spectra.
Refraction is a parametric optical effect similar to the CREIL effect. It is prompted by the emission, through dynamic polarization of matter, of a slowed down wave of pi/2 that interferes with the spurring wave. Like all parametric effects, refraction operates even at the weakest luminous levels. The polarization energy is in proportion with the spurring luminous intensity so that it is dynamically exchanged with the wave (the final assessment is nil when one neglects absorption). If several beams are simultaneously refracted within the same matter, several dynamic polarizations (with differing frequencies) come up within each molecule. The CREIL effect corresponds to a transfer of energy within each molecule, which transfer changes the polarization frequencies.
The CREIL effect is the only coherent and intense optical effect that can be had in space. It does not muddle up images and has long been ignored. The extreme rarefaction of the gas and the distances that are necessary for it to show up would make its observation very costly in a laboratory experiment. Usually negligible, it grows momentous only across astronomical distances. Hidden behind the Doppler effect, it could not be seen.
Henceforth, the CREIL effect proves itself to be as momentous as the Doppler effect in astrophysics.
The CREIL effect fittingly accounts for the spectra of quasars. Such spectra get strongly redshifted on account of the great quantity of gas locally surrounding them, the distances remaining astronomical. The CREIL effect infringes upon the Doppler effect. Of how much? It is difficult to settle the matter, for both effects can happen simultaneously. Yet, the CREIL effect so fittingly accounts for the complexities of the spectra of quasars without resorting to dark matter and other devices that its occurring cannot be discussed. Likewise, the observations made on several quasars link them quite well to close galaxies for them to apparently belong to the self same system of objects, so that most of their redshiftings seems to be intrinsic. The Doppler effect still occurs, as is shown by those close galaxies that have blueshifted spectra and draw near us. But those are local movements and faraway galaxies all have redshifted spectra. At a pinch, for quasars, almost everything can be attributed to the CREIL effect, thus bringing them closer to us, the Doppler effect remaining marginal. Quasars are no longer objects whose luminescent lines are out of bounds. They are mere dying stars, turned into neutron stars that have expelled a great part of their matter when they collapsed, which happened when the nuclear protons merged with the atomic electrons for neutrons to materialize. As their outward temperatures are exceedingly high, they are very bright. Such stars have been searched for (by way of accretion), as they had been foreseen by the theory of the evolution of stars! Nobody had realized that they had long been seen, as quasars, for the Doppler effect could not be put into question.
Let us dare break icons. Thus let us take off faraway galaxies most of the Doppler effect and replace it by the CREIL effect (cold) within the cold rarefied gas that is to be found in between us and those galaxies . There is all the more gas as they are more remote, if one admits a rather evenly distribution of gas within the universe. Then the CREIL effect is all the more momentous as distance is high and it acts as a substitute for the Doppler effect to account for the Hubble law that links distance with shifting. Without the Doppler effect, there is no need to attribute high velocities to those galaxies, but they remain quite distant, as is shown by their luminous beams. One can think of a rather static universe getting, through only local movements, rid of the expansion of the universe and therefore of the big bang theory. The Hubble law remains valid when local gaseous clouds are not there. Such is approximately the case with galaxies, but not with quasars. The intrinsic CREIL effect can occur here and there, as is shown with some double stars, and can thus disturb the Hubble law.
The temperature of the universe can be accounted for in another way than by the fossil radiations of the remains of the big-bang theory. Owing to the CREIL effect, matter and radiations thermally interact. Abiding by the second principle of thermodynamics, energy passes on from heat to coldness at 2.7 K, but the CREIL effect does not imply an incidental final balancing of the thermal radiation at such a temperature.
The way the CREIL effect allows us to structure the universe is very satisfying for the mind. Its simplicity and the way it concurs with reality bear it out. More ad more astrophysicists are won over, though the natural reluctance to change one’s mind bears upon the number.
The CREIl effect does not only account for what one sees of stars. It also applies to an effect that the spatial probes Pioneer 10 and 11, sent by NASA beyond the conventional bounds of the solar system, have observed. The radio waves of such probes are slightly blueshifted, which means that the energy they let out increases before they reach us. One has there a reverse effect of what is observed for the lights of quasars and galaxies, whose grades of energy lessen to the benefit of colder radiations. Indeed, the thermal radiation (which for radio listeners explains the background noise they can hear) and the radio waves (which are not very much stronger within some distance of Pioneer), get the energy of the solar radiation, owing to the CREIL effect.
The luminous beams of the SN1a supernovae are increasingly function of their pulsation periods. When one compares the luminous beams of two supernovae with identical periods, one distant and one close, the distance of the former that is obtained is function of the distance of the latter. Such supernovae are useful yardsticks by which to measure faraway distances. The comparison begs for a few corrections. If one attributes the high redshiftings of the distant supernovae to the Doppler effect, the high velocities they gained when reaching far away prompt an expansion of their periods and it must be taken into account for the comparison. The most important correction to be brought to the standard method lays in rectifying the periods of the supernovae as function of the velocity entirely induced by the Doppler effect. Then one observes that supernovae behave differently, whether the supernovae are close or distant. From there on, the acceleration of the velocity of expansion of the universe has been inferred, a moot point about which a great fuss was made, when it was put forward. Jerry W. Jensen (arvix.org/pdf/astro-ph/0404207, April 4, 2004) gives an explanation that rules out anomalies. The greatest part of the redshifting is to be attributed to the CREIL effect, and very little is left for the Doppler effect. The velocities of the distant supernovae are weak. An almost static universe ensues, with little expansion.
Thus, the CREIL effect drastically changes our conception of the universe. The Doppler effect, even though it still exists, in response to local movements, has found a substitute. All our textbooks as well as those dealing with astronomy must be rewritten and that is no hoax. The CREIL effect has been checked again and again by optics specialists. In astrophysics, it will have as momentous an effect as the Doppler effect. As regards quasars, astrophysicists will give up the Hubble law. Off with those heaps of disputes that have been carried on as to the big-bang theory and the expanding universe. A lot of philosophical assumptions topple down. Our vision of the universe is made far simpler owing to the CREIL effect.
No need to say that the CREIL effect that just been ascertained arouses reactions of all sorts. They range from unreserved approval to flat rejection.
We rejoice at being endorsed by a good many people, but it is just fair to debate with those who refute our views. The rejection is often skin-deep and all-embracing. It is out of question to take issue with what has been ratified up to now. Fortunately there are dissents that are well argued, which allows us to go over the question point by point.
The most frequent charge, however, is for us to have assailed acknowledged positions. One must admit that many of the substitutes put forward for the Doppler effect are either as whimsical as perpetual motion, or resort to an unknown matter, or are just inadequate, since they muddle up images or spectra. One cannot support inventions that clash with staple observations and principles of physics. We do the opposite and abide by the good old rules of optics. Adding to the indisputable Doppler effect, to a possible expanding effect of the universe, and to a gravitational effect whose weight is generally quite incidental, we bring in another effect just as indisputable, unless one denies the existence of such coherent optics as have given rise to the conception of lasers. The CREIL effect does exist. We merely aim at having acknowledged the fact that the CREIL effect plays a major role in the accounting for spectra of unblurred lines coming from unblurred images of objects observed through our instruments. The CREIL effect as well as the Doppler effect make up for the two cornerstones of the explanation of those frequency shifted spectra of lines. When used together, all the constructions we can devise would simply collapse. Nobody has yet found a flaw in the CREIL effect. Spectroscopists and laser specialists, reporting in several specialised and reputed journals have backed us. It seems a sufficient warrant for us to win support, not to mention the striking interpretation of the complex spectra of quasars. Our adding the CREIL effect to others already allowed for and significantly the Doppler effect, makes up for the foundation stone of our constructions. Starting from there, one can evolve hypotheses, even without claiming for a second sight.
Let us see where the CREIL effect can be applied. As the Doppler effect used to be applied, even though it did not quite fit, it seems sensible to inquire whether it should not be apposite to replace the Doppler effect by the CREIL effect, when the former has proved itself irrelevant (partially at least).
Let us have a look at the spectra of quasars. They are very complex as they have many lines whose shapes, positions and correlations with radio transmissions cannot be accounted for without the CREIL effect unless one resorts to scarcely convincing hypotheses (matter of unknown nature, etc…). Conversely, one can precisely obtain such complex spectra through a basic study of the spectrum of a very hot object surrounded by gas layers whose temperatures are gradually decreasing when one moves away from them. The dream of any spectroscopist comes true when he manages to find the positions of the lines of a complex spectrum without bringing in the least parameter and this is exactly what the CREIL effect enables us to achieve! One step further might lead us to admit that one encounters there a very hot star in accretion. The only stars filling in these conditions might be the neutron stars in their phases of accretion. All that is a mere hypothesis but it fittingly seems in keeping with reality.
The radio transmissions of the Pioneer probes 10 and 11 were unaccountably blueshifted. To assign such shiftings to the Doppler effect and thus change velocities, one had to turn upside down the gravitation laws. It is indeed the CREIL effect that brings about the shiftings, the required energy coming from the redshifting of the light of the Sun when it cuts across the path of the waves due to the probes.
We are often asked how distant quasars are. Let us try and find an answer. The reputed astrophysicist Halton Arp, who had to leave the United States for Germany for having too often carped at those who were the « out and out » supporters of the Doppler effect, has found several quasar alignments with a galaxy. Oftentimes, such galaxy, whose redshifting is weak, thus making it close to us, is an apparent center of symmetry. Such alignments are too many to be assigned to a haphazard effect. The distance induced by the redshifting not being amended, when one does not take into account the CREIL effect, quasars deemed to be distant and the galaxy closer mark out a level plane hemming in the Earth. Standing at the intercrossing of all those planes thus defined, the Earth becomes a single point (the center of the world?). Let us square with facts: alignments do not merely seem to show up against the celestial vault: they do exist in space. Despite their high redshiftings, quasars are close to the galaxy, thus equally distant. A couple of quasars might be the result of the breaking up of a cigar-shaped object through centrifugal force. There still remains to assess the distance and the nature of the galaxy whose intrinsic redshifting is unknown. (This term « intrinsic redshifting » begins to come up in well-recognized journals, though no explanation is given for lack of the use of the CREIL effect being acknowledged). The Hubble law that links the redshiftings to distances has first to be redrafted through the ruling out of intrinsic redshiftings due to the CREIL effect, close to objects. Thus redrafted, the law can easily be read into by a CREIL effect within an intergalactic homogeneous gas at 2.7K, thus causing a redshifting in approximate proportion with distance.
Another current objection put forward is that if quasars are stars, they should be many more within the level plane of the Milky way than without. But the CREIL effect turns upside down the current notions of distance in space, so that the current statistics based on distances can be disputed. On the other hand, Halton Arp’s observations show that quasars are rather mobile objects that might have diffused outside the level plane of the galaxy, so that the notion of « level plane of the galaxy » does not mean much for them. Lastly, the high luminous beams of the neutron stars contemplated make it possible to locate them in other galaxies.
Dying stars, being very heavy, do collapse while ejecting matter: it might result either from explosions induced by the fusion of superficial layers suddenly heated, or from the centrifugal force due to the reduction of their inertia momentum, hence to the increase of their angular velocities, supposing the ejection of matter entails a small loss of kinetic momentum. The latter complex and violent evolution is lastly followed by the quieter stage of an «accretor» neutron star within which a highly dense nucleus, whose diameter is probably lesser than one kilometer, absorbs the gases surrounding it: then the fall and the fusion superficially prompt an energy whose temperature reaches beyond 1 000 000 K, so that optical transmissions are intense, reaching the domain of gamma lines. Despite their small sizes, accretors should be observed, but they have NEVER been so.
Taking into account the cloud that surrounds the star in its accretion phase, one can obtain, through a standard calculation in spectroscopy, a very complex spectrum that proves to concur with the spectrum of a quasar and is far from a genuine Doppler spectrum. By using the CREIL effect and through basic physics laws, a spectroscopist thus solves the problems of the evolvement of neutron stars, of the origin of quasars and of the assessed oddity of their spectra.
As regards galaxies, the Doppler effect and the CREIL effect (cold, when cutting across the intergalactic gas at 2.7 K) more or less make one. They can merge and their balance is a moot point. An expanding universe, which is the conclusion one comes to when the Doppler effect is used alone, is all the more a matter of doubt since the second major proof of the big-bang theory - namely the existence of the thermal radiation at 2.7 K - is accounted for owing to the energy lost through the redshiftings due to the CREIL effect. The CREIL effect parts in thermal processes. The isotropy of the radiation at 2.7 K can easily be explained: the molecules which redshift the radiations of stars all over space increase the thermal radiation in a greater degree in the directions and at the frequencies where it is the coldest, so that it tends towards the radiation balance of a dark body. Likewise, the CREIL effect, as it is resonant, is particularly intense in between the lines making up for the thermal radiation.
Applying the CREIL effect to Pioneer waves also remains a matter of speculation. Yet, had we rather opt for the proposed erasure of Newton’s law (revisited by Einstein)? Had we rather bring in an unknown dark matter, a variation of a precisely known constant in physics (the fine structure constant), a queer synthesis of iron in young objects, a denial of spectral recurrences a good many authors have observed, indeed had we rather bring in all those counteractive notions to the application of the CREIL effect in the study of quasars? Almost everything remains a matter of speculation in astronomy, but many observations, ill-explained up to now, clear up with the CREIL effect. The explanations it gives do not head to the staggering velocities the Doppler effect has brought about. Expanding velocities have been assigned to objects for it seemed the Doppler effect could not be disputed. Our judgment needs be amended.
To bounce back on the critiques levelled at us, we differentiate the physical effects (acknowledged) from hypotheses (which might not go along with reality). Some of those who dissent from us, taking hypotheses for actual facts and who dispute occurrences or the reverse do not do so. For us, we abide by what is acknowledged and reached through a lot of independent cross-checkings, the latter brought in, for quasars, through their many spectral characteristics, with a minimum of basic hypotheses. Scientific events range from what is acknowledged to what is likely, unlikely or wrong.
Doppler effect and CREIL effect are acknowledged facts. The hypotheses we put forward for the other observations and which result from the existence of the CREIL effect are very likely and we favor them instead of what is more doubtful. And there is much to be doubted in the received theory which does not take in the CREIL effect.
We miss the backing of leading astronomers but science being one, those should fall in with the spectroscopists. Our hopes are high for we have easily refuted all the negative critiques we have received up to now. As the CREIL effect does not occur in one case only, its being accepted for quasars for example, or for Pioneer, will be enough for its occurrence to appear natural in other cases. If some are reluctant to admit the CREIL effect, it comes from their ignoring the optics of coherent light, which only specialists are well aware of. To pass on one’s knowledge from one discipline to another is not easy matter, for science is ever so many-sided that overall knowledge is out of reach. The backing of specialists in optics together with the newly-regained simplicity with which the universe can be apprehended, will end up in convincing astronomers.